Starches are modified to enhance their performance in different applications. Starches may be modified to increase their stability against excessive heat, acid, shear, time, cooling, or freezing; to change their texture; to decrease or increase their viscosity; to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time; or to increase their visco-stability.

Soy protein is a protein that is isolated from soybean. It is made from soybean meal that has been dehulled and defatted. Dehulled and defatted soybeans are processed into three kinds of high protein commercial products : soy flour, concentrates, and isolates. Soy protein isolate has been used since 1959 in foods for its functional properties. Recently, soy protein popularity has increased due to its use in health food products, and many countries allow health claims for foods rich in soy protein.

Vital Wheat Gluten is the natural protein found in wheat. A small amount added to yeast bread recipes improves the texture and elasticity of the dough. Vital Wheat Gluten can also be used to make a vegetarian meat substitute known as seitan.

Potato starch contains typical large oval spherical granules ranging in size between 5 and 100 μm. Potato starch is a very refined starch, containing minimal protein or fat. This gives the powder a clear white colour, and the cooked starch typical characteristics of neutral taste, good clarity, high binding strength, long texture and a minimal tendency to foaming or yellowing of the solution